QCOM Landing Team – #252-8f397674

Build description:

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other Image 03-Mar-2018 00:18 16.5M open
text MD5SUMS.txt 01-Mar-2018 18:01 1.6K open
other apq8016-sbc.dtb 01-Mar-2018 18:01 69.7K open
other boot-installer-linaro-stretch-qcom-snapdragon-arm64-20170628-252.img.gz 03-Mar-2018 00:18 10.3M open
other boot-linaro-stretch-qcom-snapdragon-arm64-20170628-252.img.gz 03-Mar-2018 00:18 10.3M open
other boot-sdcard-linaro-stretch-qcom-snapdragon-arm64-20170628-252.img.gz 03-Mar-2018 00:18 10.3M open
text build-log-lt-qcom-debian-images-dragonboard410c-252.txt 01-Mar-2018 18:01 1.4M open
application/zip dragonboard410c_sdcard_developer_debian-252.zip 03-Mar-2018 00:18 435.2M open
application/zip dragonboard410c_sdcard_install_debian-252.zip 03-Mar-2018 00:19 1.1G open
other dt.img 01-Mar-2018 18:01 134.0K open
other initrd.img-4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom 01-Mar-2018 18:01 3.3M open
other kernel.config 01-Mar-2018 18:01 149.0K open
other linaro-stretch-alip-qcom-snapdragon-arm64-20170628-252.img.gz 03-Mar-2018 00:19 814.8M open
other linaro-stretch-developer-qcom-snapdragon-arm64-20170628-252.img.gz 03-Mar-2018 00:20 419.8M open
other linaro-stretch-installer-qcom-snapdragon-arm64-20170628-252.img.gz 03-Mar-2018 00:20 248.8M open
other linux-firmware-image-4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom_4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom-252_arm64.deb 01-Mar-2018 18:01 51.6K open
other linux-headers-4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom_4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom-252_arm64.deb 03-Mar-2018 00:20 9.8M open
other linux-image-4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom-dbg_4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom-252_arm64.deb 03-Mar-2018 00:20 83.6M open
other linux-image-4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom_4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom-252_arm64.deb 03-Mar-2018 00:20 8.4M open
other linux-libc-dev_4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom-252_arm64.deb 01-Mar-2018 18:01 824.0K open
other msm8916-mtp.dtb 01-Mar-2018 18:01 60.4K open

The Linaro Qualcomm Landing Team is pleased to announce the new release of the Linaro Linux release for Qualcomm™ Snapdragon® 410 processor. The Linaro Linux release 17.06 is a Debian-based Linaro Build that provides developers with a desktop like environment using Debian and the LXQt desktop, as well as a console-only image.

What’s new in this release

  • Upgrade to Linux kernel 4.9.34
  • Camera subsystem: add support for scaling and cropping images
  • Blink WLAN LED on TX, not RX

Important note(s) about this release

A firmware/bootloader upgrade was required for this release. If you install using the SD card method, then the new bootloaders are flashed automatically, if you install with the fastboot images, then you need to install the latest bootloader package.

Known issues

For a list of all known issues, please check our Bugzilla


The Linaro Linux version 17.06 for the Snapdragon 410 supports the following features:

  • Provides a working Debian environment with access to Debian repositories (apt-get) and updates. It is based on Debian 9.0 (aka stretch).
  • It is based on Linux kernel 4.9.34.
  • It is based on proprietary firmware available on Qualcomm Developer Network or 96boards.org.
  • The following images are released:
    • boot image that includes prebuilt kernel and initrd
    • developer image that includes core packages as well as typical development packages (headless)
    • alip image that includes a minimal desktop environment GUI using LXQt
  • All images have a pre-configured user called linaro, and the password for this user is set to linaro
  • The root file system should be flashed in the onboard eMMC.
  • The following features are supported on the DragonBoard 410c:
    • Quad Core ARMv8 A53 CPU (@1.2GHz)
    • PSCI with support for cpuidle, SMP, hotplug and restart.
    • Adreno 306 GPU, powered by freedreno Mesa/Gallium GPU driver, version 13.0.6
      • OpenGL 3.1, OpenGLES 3.0, GLX, EGL
      • X11 -modesetting video driver
    • Cpufreq, using ondemand governor by default
    • CPU thermal sensors, and thermal management using the step wise governor
    • HDMI display and audio using the onboard ADV7533 MIPI/DSI Receiver with HDMI Transmitter from Analog Devices
    • UART, SD, eMMC
    • USB2.0 (Mouse, Keyboard, Storage, Ethernet)
    • Wifi and Bluetooth using integrated WCN3620, using proprietary firmware and wcn36xx driver
    • Hardware accelerated video codecs using dedicated Snapdragon coprocessor
    • Onboard GPS using Qualcomm GNSS subsystem
    • CSI interface with external ISP only, sample driver included for OV5645, with support for the following features:
      • CSI0 and/or CSI1 on the high speed expansion connector
      • streaming from the camera sensor or CSID test generator
      • raw dump to memory: 8bit packed UYVY format from OV5645 and resolutions of 2592×1944, 1920×1080 or 1280×960
      • format conversion from 8bit packed UYVY to NV12
      • input image downscaling (up to 16x)
      • input image cropping

Information about the DragonBoard 410c

For more information about the DragonBoard 410c, please check the following website and wiki:

How to install and use this release

To install this release please follow the instructions from the DragonBoard 410c Linux user guide.

Proprietary firmware

This release contains proprietary firmware. You can download the proprietary firmware separately, from here. All the required firmware files are pre-installed, and our images are bound to the Qualcomm Linux BSP license agreement. A copy of the LICENSE can be found in the image as /etc/QCOM-LINUX-BOARD-SUPPORT-LICENSE.

Running the ALIP Desktop image

The ALIP/LXQt image is expected to provide a desktop-like experience, as such it is recommended to use an HDMI monitor, as well as USB keyboard and mouse. The default image will directly boot to the login screen by default. However a root console login will also be started on the serial console.

Note: The default bootargs enable the kernel messages to be displayed on the serial console.

Running the Developer based image

If you have flashed the developer image, when booting the board you will end up in a root login on the serial console. If you have an HDMI monitor connected, you will also have login terminals on the display

How to get and customize the kernel source code

Building the Linux kernel from source

The Linux kernel used in this release is available via tags in the Linaro Qualcomm Landing Team git repository:

git: http://git.linaro.org/landing-teams/working/qualcomm/kernel.git
tag: debian-qcom-dragonboard410c-17.06
defconfig: arch/arm64/defconfig kernel/configs/distro.config

The kernel image (Image) is located in the boot image and partition and the kernel modules are installed in the root file system. It is possible for a user to rebuild the kernel and run a custom kernel image instead of the released kernel. You can build the kernel using any recent GCC release using the git tree, tag and defconfig mentioned above. This release only supports booting with device tree, as such both the device tree blobs need to be built as well.

The DragonBoard 410c is an ARMv8 platform, and the kernel is compiled for the Aarch64 target. Even though it is possible to build natively, on the target board, It is recommended to build the Linux kernel on a PC development host. In which case you need to install a cross compiler for the ARM architecture. It is recommended to download the Linaro GCC cross compiler.

To build the Linux kernel, you can use the following instructions:

git clone -n http://git.linaro.org/landing-teams/working/qualcomm/kernel.git
cd kernel
git checkout -b kernel-17.06 debian-qcom-dragonboard410c-17.06
export ARCH=arm64
export CROSS_COMPILE=<path to your GCC cross compiler>/aarch64-linux-gnu-
make defconfig distro.config
make -j4 Image dtbs KERNELRELEASE=4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom

Additionally, you might want or need to compile the kernel modules:

make -j4 modules KERNELRELEASE=4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom

The kernel modules need to be put in the root file system, under /lib/modules folder. To export the built modules, please run:

make modules_install KERNELRELEASE=4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom INSTALL_MOD_STRIP=1 INSTALL_MOD_PATH=<folder>

You will then need to transfer the content of <folder> onto the target root file system.

Building a boot image

You now need to create a valid boot image with your own kernel build.

On your host PC, we need to install the following tools:

sudo apt-get install device-tree-compiler
git clone git://codeaurora.org/quic/kernel/skales

The boot image consists of the table of device tree (dt.img), the kernel image (Image) and an init ramdisk image.

The dtbTool is a standalone application that will process the DTBs generated during the kernel build, to create the table of device tree image. This tool is included in the skales git tree cloned above.

./skales/dtbTool -o dt.img -s 2048 arch/arm64/boot/dts/qcom/

To create the boot image, you also need a ramdisk image, and you can use the one from the release:

wget http://builds.96boards.org/releases/dragonboard410c/linaro/debian/17.06/initrd.img-4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom

The tool mkbootimg (also in the git tree previously cloned) is a standalone application that will process all files and create the boot image that can then be booted on the target board, or flash into the on-board eMMC. The boot image also contains the kernel bootargs, which can be changed as needed in the next command:

./skales/mkbootimg --kernel arch/arm64/boot/Image \
                   --ramdisk initrd.img-4.9.34-linaro-lt-qcom \
                   --output boot-db410c.img \
                   --dt dt.img \
                   --pagesize 2048 \
                   --base 0x80000000 \
                   --cmdline "root=/dev/disk/by-partlabel/rootfs rw rootwait console=ttyMSM0,115200n8"
Booting a custom boot image

Assuming you have now built a valid boot image called boot-db410c.img, you can run the following fastboot command to boot it on the board:

sudo fastboot boot boot-db410c.img

If you want to permanently use a custom kernel image, you can update the boot image and reflash it into the boot partition:

sudo fastboot flash boot boot-db410c.img

How to get and customize the bootloader

While the first stage bootloader is proprietary and released as firmware blob available on Qualcomm Developer Network or 96boards.org, the second stage bootloader is LK and is open source.

The original LK source code is available on CodeAurora.org, and the source code which is used in this release can be found in the Linaro Qualcomm Landing Team git repository:

git: http://git.linaro.org/landing-teams/working/qualcomm/lk.git
tag: dragonboard410c-LA.BR.1.2.7-03810-8x16.0-linaro1

Since release 17.04, the first stage bootloader expects the second stage bootloader to include a signature. The signature is typically used for secure boot. On Dragonboard 410c, since no private keys are available, the signature is not checked for integrity however the signature section, even if empty, must exist. To build the LK bootloader and add the signature section, you can use the following instructions:

git clone git://codeaurora.org/platform/prebuilts/gcc/linux-x86/arm/arm-eabi-4.8.git -b LA.BR.1.1.3.c4-01000-8x16.0
git clone http://git.linaro.org/landing-teams/working/qualcomm/lk.git -b dragonboard410c-LA.BR.1.2.7-03810-8x16.0-linaro1
git clone https://git.linaro.org/landing-teams/working/qualcomm/signlk.git
cd lk
make -j4 msm8916 EMMC_BOOT=1 TOOLCHAIN_PREFIX=<path to arm-eabi-4.8 tree>/bin/arm-eabi-
mv ./build-msm8916/emmc_appsboot.mbn ./build-msm8916/emmc_appsboot_unsigned.mbn
../signlk/signlk.sh -i=./build-msm8916/emmc_appsboot_unsigned.mbn -o=./build-msm8916/emmc_appsboot.mbn -d

The second stage bootloader is flashed on the aboot partition, you can now flash your board with:

sudo fastboot flash aboot ./build-msm8916/emmc_appsboot.mbn

How to get and customize Debian/Ubuntu packages source code

This release is based on Debian 9.0 (aka stretch), and it is not possible to use a different Debian release (e.g. it is not possible to downgrade to an older Debian release, nor is it possible to use a newer release, such as the one being currently developed).

Since all packages installed in Linaro Debian-based images are maintained either in Debian archives or in Linaro repositories, it is possible for users to update their environment with commands such as:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

All user space software is packaged using Ubuntu or Debian packaging process. As such you can find extensive information about using, patching and building packages in the Ubuntu packaging guide or The Debian New Maintainers Guide. If you quickly want to rebuild any package, you can run the following commands to fetch the package source code and install all build dependencies:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get build-dep <pkg>
apt-get source <pkg>

Then you can rebuild the package locally with:

cd <pkg-version>
dpkg-buildpackage -b -us -uc


  • you can drop patches in debian/patches/ and update debian/patches/series before building with dpkg-buildpackage to customize the source code.
  • all associated .deb files will be located in the root folder, and can be installed in the system with dpkg -i .deb.
  • all these commands should be executed on the target directly, not on the development host. It is generally enough to build packages natively, on the target platform. For some packages, it is possible to cross compile Ubuntu/Debian packages however this goes beyond the scope of this wiki page.

Using the onboard GPS

The GPS software stack mostly runs on the DSP subsystem. The communication between the main CPU and the DSP is done with a specific IPC driver called QRTR (see ./net/qrtr/ in the kernel source tree). The DSP is not started automatically at boot. To start the GPS, the DSP needs to be started first. Once the DSP is started any gpsd client can be started and will be able to retrieve GPS data.

Please note that the sensitivity of the onboard antenna is quite low, so getting a FIX will take several minutes. Please refer to the dedicated application note to install an external antenna for better GPS performance.

To get started with GPS, first install the following packages:

sudo apt-get install gpsd-clients gnss-gpsd

The package gnss-gpsd will bring all the needed dependencies to use the onboard GPS. Then you need to start the DSP:

sudo systemctl start qdsp-start.service

From now on, you can use any gpsd client, such as gpsmon or xgps.

Using CSI camera

For detailed information about using CSI camera, please refer to this document.

Video record pipeline

It is possible to create a basic video recording GStreamer pipeline involving the camera and video encoder. Currently this has the following limitations:

  • The frame data must be vertically aligned to 32 lines. For the OV5645 camera this means that only 1280×960 resolution is supported.
  • A GStreamer video encoder plugin is needed which is not a part of the release. To enable this the user must patch and rebuild gstreamer1.0-plugins-good package – this is recommended for advanced users only.

To enable the video encoder plugin follow these steps. Install needed packages and dependencies:

sudo apt-get install build-essential fakeroot devscripts quilt
sudo apt-get build-dep gstreamer1.0-plugins-good

Get gstreamer1.0-plugins-good source:

apt-get source gstreamer1.0-plugins-good
cd gst-plugins-good1.0-1.10.4/

Get the video encoder plugin patches. These are the 12 last commits from here. Download them as patch files and to apply them do the following for each patch:

quilt import path_to_patch.patch
quilt push

Edit debian/rules and add --enable-v4l2-probe and --without-libv4l2 options to DEB_CONFIGURE_EXTRA_FLAGS.

Build gstreamer1.0-plugins-good package:

debuild -b -uc -us

Install the newly built gstreamer1.0-plugins-good package:

dpkg -i ../gstreamer1.0-plugins-good_1.10.4-1_arm64.deb

Now you are ready to do video recording! Configure the pipeline:

sudo media-ctl -d /dev/media1 -l '"msm_csiphy0":1->"msm_csid0":0[1],"msm_csid0":1->"msm_ispif0":0[1],"msm_ispif0":1->"msm_vfe0_pix":0[1]'
sudo media-ctl -d /dev/media1 -V '"ov5645 1-0076":0[fmt:UYVY8_2X8/1280x960 field:none],"msm_csiphy0":0[fmt:UYVY8_2X8/1280x960 field:none],"msm_csid0":0[fmt:UYVY8_2X8/1280x960 field:none],"msm_ispif0":0[fmt:UYVY8_2X8/1280x960 field:none],"msm_vfe0_pix":0[fmt:UYVY8_2X8/1280x960 field:none]'

And do video recording:

gst-launch-1.0 -e v4l2src device=/dev/video3 ! video/x-raw,format=NV12,width=1280,height=960,framerate=30/1 ! v4l2video5h264enc extra-controls="controls,h264_profile=4,video_bitrate=2000000;" ! h264parse ! mp4mux ! filesink location=video.mp4

When using the above command make sure that video device node numbers are correct or check and use the correct ones:

  • examine the output of media-ctl -d /dev/media1 -p and check that /dev/video3 is connected to msm_vfe0_pix
  • examine the output of gst-inspect-1.0 video4linux2 and check the name of the V4L2 H.264 Encoder plugin – e.g. v4l2video5h264enc

Optimized video pipeline

In order to exercise a fully optimized video pipeline some specific settings need to be applied throughout the pipeline elements. With the fully optimized video use case there is no extra buffer copy, and the various drivers involved are sharing all video buffers using dmabuf.

To exercise the opimized video pipeline, you can use for example the following gstreamer command:

GST_GL_PLATFORM=egl gst-launch-1.0 filesrc location=<path to file> ! qtdemux name=m m.video_0 ! h264parse ! v4l2video0dec capture-io-mode=dmabuf ! glimagesink

Audio configuration settings

The release has support for both analog and digital audio (HDMI). When using the ALIP desktop image, to switch back and forth you can use PulseAudio volume control application, and in the configuration tab, you will be able to chose which profile to use. Note that by default, PulseAudio will use the analog output, and you need to switch to HDMI at first boot if your HDMI monitor supports HDMI audio.

Feedback and Support

For general question or support request, please go to 96boards.org Community forum.

For any bug related to this release, please submit issues to the 96Board.org Bug tracking system. To submit a bug, follow this link.

Bugs will be reviewed and prioritized by the team. For any bug report it is recommended to provide as much information as possible, and at the very list please include the name of the release you are using, the output of dpkg -l to list all packages installed, as well, as the boot log (output of dmesg).

How to contribute

We very much encourage developers to use and contribute to our releases, using the following instructions.

Qualcomm Snapdragon is product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.